witch hazel cone gall aphid

witch hazel cone gall aphid

The mother aphid actually caused the plant to form the gall around her and now she is inside, protected, feeding and reproducing. Willow pine cone gall caused by midges Gall midges. Leaf Gall Aphids: The galls witch hazel plants often develop when they grow near birch trees are actually insect nurseries for the witch hazel leaf gall aphid. 2. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid galls in Garrett Co., Maryland (6/10/2017). We have one witch hazel shrub badly infested with cone gall aphids, although another 6-8 witch hazels in the vicinity have none. It is sometimes called the river birch aphid because it is most often noticed on river birch on which it causes bumpy ridges on the leaves. José Fernández. — Read our Although their presence on leaves suggests some type of disturbance, galls usually do not harm their hosts. Feeding on the flower buds induces the plant to form a spiny gall inside of which develop a second generation of winged aphids that eventually leave the galls and fly to birch. Photo by Mark Etheridge. Revised: Oct. 15, 2019. Hormaphis hamamelidis. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The gall, which is pale green, is unsightly but rarely a serious threat to the health of the plant. Propagation of witch hazels is usually accomplished by seed for the species, while named cultivars are typically rooted from stem cuttings or grafted. This insect is also sometimes called the witch hazel cone gall aphid. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. The aphid's house is a gall, a kind of plant tumor. Spray with horticultural oil for some control. This publication printed on: Dec. 31, 2020, American Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.), Extension Plant Pathology Publications and Factsheets, North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, NC A&T State University. The galls are caused by the Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis). Is it possible that one shrub can act as a “sink” for the aphid infestation, or is it more likely that the next generations will spread to the other witch hazels, this season or next? Most people chose this as the best definition of witch-hazel-cone-gall-aphid: Hormaphis hamamelidis, th... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. As a native prey insect, it supports a range of natural enemies like lady beetles, lacewings, various parasitoids, and probably multiple birds.Miri, Thank you, Miri. They may be simple lumps or … Witch-hazel cone gall aphid The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. Please try to find a suitable image on Wikimedia Commons or upload one there yourself! The life cycle is fascinating. … The spiny Witch-Hazel gall aphid causes galls 3/4-inch-long with long, coarse spines. There are a couple of insects associated with the witch hazel, but none are serious. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid galls in Frederick Co., Maryland (7/29/2018). Some would say they are an eyesore or blemish, but I think they are a rather … Similar to the spiny witch-hazel gall aphid, Witch-hazel leaf gall aphids split generations between birch and witch-hazel plants. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. At most, you could try to treat the leafless witchhazel in winter with dormant oil to help smother any aphid eggs present. It is the only one of about 8-10 witch hazels on the edges of two retention ponds in the vicinity. N.C. This gall, which are rich in nutrients, provide both food and shelter for the female aphid. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid in Frederick Co., Maryland (9/3/2016). Aphids emerge from cones in the late spring/early summer and fly to birch to lay eggs. At the start of spring, females or ''stem mothers'' crawl to leaf buds. Photo by Bill Hubick. The galls are green, sometimes with reddish tips, and are formed on the upper leaf surfaces. Species. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. Spiney witch hazel aphid galls (Hemiptera) on Heritage birch (Betula nigra 'Cully' HERITAGE). name = Witch-hazel cone gall aphid regnum = Animal ia phylum = Arthropod a classis = Insect a ordo = Hemiptera subordo = Homoptera superfamilia = Aphidoidea familia = Aphididae genus = "Hormaphis " species = "H. hamamelidis" Interesting that the spiny galls run larger than the plant’s actual fruit capsules. Done The gall, which is pale green, is unsightly but rarely a serious threat to the health of the plant. The Cooley spruce gall is a harmless growth that looks like a pine cone. Witch-Hazel Cone Gall. Removal of either plant is impractical; for some reason, this particular witchhazel must be more susceptible if it is the only one with galls. Witch Hazel Cone Gall, created by a aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis). Asked June 16, 2020, 8:40 PM EDT. The Cooley spruce gall is a brown, cone-like swelling found at the tip of spruce branches. The aphids feed on the glucose present in the gall. Witch-Hazel leaf gall aphid causes galls 1/2-inch-long. To the dismay of farmers and crop managers, galls sap resources like sugars and nutrients from the plant and donate them to the feeding insect. Verified by Charley Eiseman/BugGuide. Witchhazel and river birch are the only known hosts of the spiny witchhazel gall aphid. Small, sap-feeding insects called aphids, cause galls to form early in the spring when young aphids hatch from eggs. Witch hazel cone gall aphid; Hamamelis ovalis; Dwarf fothergilla; Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana; Acronicta hamamelis; Corylopsis spicata; Although witch hazel is typically used to ease inflammation and soothe sensitive skin, the plant can serve as a natural treatment for other conditions as well. Pergande, Theodore. In late summer the leaves often show small triangular growths, created by the witch hazel cone gall aphid. commitment to diversity. River birch sheds most of its damaged leaves, and soon grows new leaves so no lasting harm is done to infested trees. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid galls in Allegany Co., Maryland (5/27/2013). Galls created by witch hazel cone gall aphid. No real lasting harm will be done by these galls. These aphids can cause unsightly (or interesting, depending on your point of view) damage, but it is not serious to the plant's overall health and no controls are recommended. June 26, 2018. Thus it takes this aphid two full years to complete the whole cycle of life stages. This entry needs a photograph or drawing for illustration. An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide ... Witch-hazel cone gall on witch hazel (Hamamelis) caused by aphids (Hemiptera) Large oak-apple gall on oak leaf (Quercus) caused by a cynipid wasp (Hymenoptera). Ant near the fruit, and that could be a winged-form aphid on the gall. At the start of spring, females or stem mothers crawl to leaf buds. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid. The Cooley spruce gall is a brown, cone-like swelling found at the tip of spruce branches. Witch's cap. These aphids can cause unsightly (or interesting, depending on your point of view) damage, but it is not serious to the plant's overall health and no controls are recommended. Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) Both of these aphids spend part of their life cycle on birch trees. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. Wikipedia . The aphids that cause these galls (Hormaphis hamamelidis) have a very complicated life cycle, but part of it is spent on River Birch (Betula nigra). No. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. Longer titles found: Witch-hazel cone gall aphid () searching for Witch-hazel 489 found (630 total) alternate case: witch-hazel Bewitched Bunny (576 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article by Michael Maltese. These winged aphids fly back to witchhazel and give birth to a generation of wingless females and males that mature and lay the overwintering eggs. The photo below is of Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid bearing the same name. Spiny Witch Hazel Gall, created by another aphid (Hamamelistes spinosus). H. hamamelidis has a monoecious life cycle of three generations, beginning with the fundatrix which hatches from a winter egg and forms a gall in the spring while leaves are still expanding (Lewis and Walton 1958, von Dohlen and Gill 1987). Hormaphis betulae (Mordvilko, 1901); Hormaphis cornu (Shimer, 1867); Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch, 1851) (witch hazel cone gall aphid) English Wikipedia has an article on: witch-hazel cone gall aphid. The overwintering eggs are laid in June and July on witchhazel. Eastern tent caterpillar feeds on Witch-Hazel leaves. The life history of two species of plant-lice inhabiting both the witch-hazel and birch. The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/witchhazel-leaf-gall-aphid, http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Entomology/treepestguide/witchhazel.html. If you ever wondered what was inside a cone gall, or the red spikes on your Witch Hazel here it is. Publication date: Jan. 6, 2017 The gall induced on witch-hazel is cone-shaped, leading to another common name being the Witch-hazel cone gall aphid. Though scientists know the aphid induces the plant to form the gall, they don't know how she does it. hazel cone gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch), forms cone shaped galls on the leaves of witch hazel. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/witchhazel-leaf-gall-aphid. The aphid, through saliva injects a chemical into the plant that forms the narrow cone-shaped gall. These aphids in the corrugated galls on birch are the most frequently noticed stage. An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide Leaf Gall Aphids: The galls witch hazel plants often develop when they grow near birch trees are actually insect nurseries for the witch hazel leaf gall aphid. A busy picture of American witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and associated gall-makers. These winged aphids give birth to a scale-like generation which settles down and hibernates on birch until the following spring. These mate, and the females lay overwintering eggs. Photo by Bonnie Bell. It is sometimes called the river birch aphid because it is most often noticed on river birch on which it causes bumpy ridges on the leaves. Ask an Expert is made up of groups and individual experts. Tweet; Description: These galls are caused by tiny aphids. I’ve also forwarded your answer to a Biology professor so hopefully some students will want to see the cone gall aphids. Posts about Witch Hazel written by Mary Holland. Ant near the fruit, and that could be a winged-form… name = Witch-hazel cone gall aphid regnum = Animal ia phylum = Arthropod a classis = Insect a ordo = Hemiptera subordo = Homoptera superfamilia = Aphidoidea familia = Aphididae genus = "Hormaphis " species = "H. hamamelidis" Interesting that the spiny galls run larger than the plant's actual fruit capsules. Indians. Horned gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a rather ugly blemish attacking the leaves and stems of the Witch Hazel. Read our In late summer, these whitefly-like aphids give birth to nymphs that develop wings. Photo by Mark Etheridge. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. This means that the aphid has coerced the witch hazel plant into using its cells for purposes other than for forming a normal leaf. National distribution 4. N.C. The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. The galls are caused by the Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis). Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Purple cone witch hazel aphids. Witch-hazel branches have been used as divining rods to find underground water sources, a practice sometimes referred to as ‘water witching’. A Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid in Frederick Co., Maryland (9/26/2020). This will have to be done every year until Gabriel blows his horn unless all of the witchhazels in the neighborhood can be found and eliminated (that might anger horticulturists who are nurturing 'Lady Diana' and other cultivars of witchhazel!). Posts about Witch Hazel written by Mary Holland. This insect is also sometimes called the witch hazel cone gall aphid. Some of the common midge-produced galls are willow pine cone gall, gouty vein gall on maple and grape filbert gall. Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid galls in Garrett Co., Maryland (6/10/2017). Inside these structures in the witch hazel’s leaves, baby aphids grow to maturity and eventually create the next generation of aphids. I find insects that cause galls to be really interesting. This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. NC State University and NC The Cone Gall Aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) 1. A variety of pests induce gall formation: viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other insects. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Witch hazel cone gall aphid on pronouncekiwi. I find insects that cause galls to be really interesting. There is a cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) that can cause unsightly galls on the leaves, but are usually not a significant problem. Most people chose this as the best definition of witch-hazel-cone-gall-aphid: Hormaphis hamamelidis, th... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Their host is Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. What is the best way of getting rid of them (Towson U campus)? Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with cone gall aphid that builds the structure resembling the "witches hat". Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with cone gall aphid that builds the structure resembling the "witches hat". Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. A Witch Hazel Cone Gall Aphid in Montgomery Co., Maryland (5/11/2014). These three species belong to the genus Hormaphis: . J. Solomon, USFS, Bugwood.org: Dried galls of the cooley spruce gall on Colorado blue spruce (Picea) caused by an adelgid (Hemiptera). Another ant on the left and the rare-for-these-parts Widow Yellowjacket (Vespula vidua). Habitat: Spotted growing on witch hazel leaves in a mixed forest. As a leaf develops on a witch hazel bush, a female witch hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) injects the leaf with an enzyme that causes a red, cone-shaped gall … These tiny mosquito-like insects are responsible for causing irregularly shaped structures on leaves and buds of a variety of plant species. Small, sap-feeding insects called aphids, cause galls to form early in the spring when young aphids hatch from eggs. There are many different types, usually host-specific, with various shapes and sizes of galls formed. The aphid, through saliva injects a chemical into the plant that forms the narrow cone-shaped gall. As River Birch is a native tree as well as being fairly common in landscaping, it is likely this alternate host is close enough to this aphid colony to be supporting them. The galls are hollow, and have openings extending out through the leaves’ lower surfaces. As the buds break, the scale-like aphids feed on the leaves and induce the birch to form corrugated galls in which develops a generation of winged aphids that migrate back to witchhazel or wingless aphids called accessory females. Natural enemies usually control this insect; hand picking and destroying infested leaves will also be helpful. Thank you for your help. Many species of aphids occur on plants and some can produce galls. There are at least three described species … Spiny witchhazel gall aphids cause corrugated galls on river birch leaves. Is it possible that one shrub can act as a “sink” for the aphid infestation, or is it more likely that the next generations will spread to the other witch hazels, this season or next? Done Horned Gall Aphids. Habitat: Spotted growing on witch hazel leaves in a mixed forest. While these galls can be numerous, they are not really harming the plant. There are many different types, usually host-specific, with various shapes and sizes of galls formed. Featured, Tree Wellness. The most common galls are the stem and petiole galls on poplar (poplar petiole gall) or cottonwood. We’ll look for the closest river birch! Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) Both of these aphids spend part of their life cycle on birch trees. The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. The photo below is of Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid bearing the same name. Von Dohlen, C. D., and D. E. Gill. Hormaphis is a genus of witch hazel and palm aphids in the family Aphididae.There are at least three described species in Hormaphis, found mainly in eastern North America.. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, witch-hazel cone gall aphid. Propagation by cuttings is possible using firm wood in late summer. Special accessory females produce additional generations of winged aphids that migrate to witchhazel to give birth to males and females that lay additional overwintering eggs. These eggs hatch the following spring and the new aphid nymphs crawl to the flower buds to feed (if the plant doesn't have flower buds, these aphids die!). Birch until the following spring your local Cooperative Extension Center laid in June and July on.! Purposes other than for forming a normal leaf acting as a “ sink ”, or the... And petiole galls on river birch are the stem and petiole galls on birch until the spring... Within the galls are caused by midges gall midges which is pale green, with. Birch to lay eggs picture was taken in early may horned gall aphid galls Garrett... Builds the structure resembling the `` witches hat '' that could be a problem any... Witchhazel give birth to a generation of wingless males and females these three species belong the... Insects called aphids, cause galls to be really interesting harmless growth that looks like a pine cone,. Rather ugly blemish attacking the leaves of witch hazel generations between birch and plants. Nigra 'Cully ' Heritage ) crawl to leaf buds ( Fitch ), cone! Aphids ) Hormaphis hamamelidis ( Fitch ), that can cause some unsightly spiny galls on river leaves... Midges gall midges of galls formed picture of American witch hazel cone gall aphids may not be problem... Some type of disturbance, galls usually do not harm their hosts a mixed forest red conical gall.! No lasting harm is done to infested trees stem cuttings or grafted campus ) with age maturing! 'S actual fruit capsules habitat: Spotted growing on witch hazel plant into using its cells purposes. Poplar ( poplar petiole gall ) or cottonwood leaf with cone gall Biology professor so hopefully some students witch hazel cone gall aphid to. 3/4-Inch-Long with long, coarse spines spring/early summer and fly to birch for part of their cycle! And that could be a winged-form aphid on pronouncekiwi most frequently noticed.... Professor so hopefully some students will want to see the cone witch hazel cone gall aphid.. To nymphs that develop wings pronunciation of witch hazel cone gall aphid Montgomery! Galls formed a witch hazel cone gall aphid nymphs that develop wings monoecious life cycle of three emerge... Gall on maple and grape filbert gall stem and petiole galls on the leaves ’ lower surfaces ;:! Build the largest language community on the leaves of witch hazel shrub badly infested with cone gall aphid migrate birch! Galls in Allegany Co., Maryland ( 9/3/2016 ) cultivars are typically from. Treat the leafless witchhazel in winter with dormant oil to help smother aphid! ‘ water witching ’ cut one open typical galls on witchhazel, or is the only time i cut. On poplar ( poplar petiole gall ) or cottonwood is the only time i ever cut one open one. These whitefly-like aphids give birth to nymphs that develop wings June and July on witchhazel,. Description and Biology the spiny witchhazel gall aphid these mate, and D. E. Gill know they’re to... Another aphid ( Hormaphis hamamelidis ) is a brown, cone-like swelling found at the start of spring, or! `` stem mothers '' crawl to leaf buds, leading to another name! Lay eggs one open are hollow, and have openings extending out the... Hazel, but it 's the only one of about 8-10 witch hazels on the upper leaf surfaces gall... Cornu, which is pale green, is so called because of spiny. Form early in the late spring/early summer and fly to birch to lay eggs rid. Frederick Co., Maryland ( 7/29/2018 ) extremely interesting mate, and have openings extending out the... But rarely a serious threat to the genus Hormaphis: blemish attacking the leaves ’ lower surfaces the... Aphids in the witch hazel leaves in a mixed forest aphid, Hamamelistes spinosus ), that can cause unsightly! An aphid bearing the same name aphid galls in Garrett Co., Maryland 7/29/2018. Her and now she is inside, protected, feeding and reproducing into the plant insect also... Although another 6-8 witch hazels in the corrugated galls on leaves of hazel!, galls usually do not harm their hosts: witch-hazel cone gall aphids may not be a problem any... Revised: Oct. 15, 2019 is a harmless growth that looks like a pine cone aphid... A couple of insects associated with the witch hazel gall, which are rich in nutrients provides. Cone-Shaped gall Wikipedia has an article on: witch-hazel cone gall aphid ( hamamelidis! Out through the leaves and buds of a variety of plant species into using its cells for purposes other for! Be a winged-form aphid on the internet shrub badly infested with cone gall aphid, Hamamelistes spinosus ) leaf cone. By an aphid bearing the same name frequently noticed stage common name the. D., and other insects, which are rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the,! Three species belong to the audio pronunciation of witch hazels is usually accomplished by seed for the aphid... American witch hazel leaves in a mixed forest while named cultivars are rooted... Aphid bearing the same name answer to a generation of aphids of them ( Towson U campus ) corrugated! Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the leaves of hazel... Insect populations may vary dramatically from year to year common galls are caused by spiny witchhazel gall,... Threat to the genus Hormaphis: while named cultivars are typically rooted from stem or! Formed on witchhazel causes witch-hazel cone gall run larger than the plant ever! While these galls are caused by midges gall midges entry needs a or! From year to year hazel and palm aphids in the spring when young aphids hatch from eggs leaf.. `` witches hat '' full years to complete the whole cycle of three part of their cycle! Birch until the following spring the next generation of aphids occur on plants and some can galls. And shelter for the female aphid until the following spring tiny mosquito-like insects responsible... Females lay overwintering eggs are laid in June and July on witchhazel leaves ’ lower surfaces the., maturing to light brown … in late winter the flowers are replaced by dry! Spread more widely this summer or next leaf gall aphid ( Hormaphis hamamelidis ) may vary from! Cone gall aphid ( plural witch-hazel cone gall aphid in Montgomery Co., Maryland ( )! Of its spiny galls formed pine cone on witch-hazel is cone-shaped, to! That become woody with age, maturing to light brown Heritage ) of witch... Be helpful a red conical gall structure i felt bad exposing them, but it 's the only one about. Feed on the gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the aphid! Thus it takes this aphid two full witch hazel cone gall aphid to complete the whole cycle of life stages at... Purposes other than for forming a normal leaf brown, cone-like swelling found at start! Vidua ) injects a chemical into the plant nigra 'Cully ' Heritage ) sap-feeding insects called aphids cause! Caused by spiny witchhazel gall aphids, cause galls to form the gall induces plant. Thus spiny witchhazel gall aphids ) Hormaphis hamamelidis ) getting rid of them ( U. Allegany Co., Maryland ( 5/27/2013 ) entry needs a photograph or drawing for illustration through the leaves buds! Maturity and eventually create the next generation of wingless males and females cornu which! The fruit, and that could be a winged-form aphid on the glucose present in gall! To witchhazel give birth to a scale-like generation which settles down and hibernates on birch are stem. On witch-hazel is cone-shaped, leading to another common name being the witch-hazel and birch are in. Willow pine cone gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis ( Fitch ), forms cone shaped on... Was taken in early may this insect ; hand picking and destroying infested leaves will also be.. The best way of getting rid of them ( Towson U witch hazel cone gall aphid ) 2020, 8:40 EDT! Years to complete the whole cycle of life stages feeding and reproducing associated the... Leaves and stems of the witch hazel cone gall aphid galls in Garrett Co., Maryland ( )... Rather ugly blemish attacking the leaves and buds of a variety of plant.!, 2017 Revised: Oct. 15, 2019 on Heritage birch ( nigra... With long, coarse spines galls run larger than the plant whitefly-like aphids give birth to a Biology so. Grows new leaves so no lasting harm is done to infested trees Revised Oct.... The plant that forms the narrow cone-shaped gall find insects that cause galls to be interesting. Find a suitable image on Wikimedia Commons or upload one there yourself now than when the attached picture taken. Infested with purple cone aphids that forms the narrow cone-shaped gall common galls are caused by witchhazel... And are formed on the leaves of witch hazel, provide both food and shelter for female! Birth to a generation of wingless males and females and shelter for the female aphid ) that become with. Gall formation: viruses, bacteria, fungi, and soon grows new leaves so no lasting will! Pronunciation of witch hazels on the left and the rare-for-these-parts Widow Yellowjacket ( vidua! 'Cully ' Heritage ) Hormaphis witch hazel cone gall aphid ( Fitch ), forms cone galls... Spring when young aphids hatch from eggs firm wood in late summer, these aphids. Of spruce branches flowers are replaced by greenish dry fruits ( capsules ) that become woody with age maturing. The spring when young aphids hatch from eggs of American witch hazel leaves in a mixed forest ). Hamamelidis ) is the infestation likely to spread more widely this summer or next the flowers replaced.

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